Genome-wide genetic diversity and population structure of Garcinia kola (Heckel) in Benin using DArT-Seq technology.
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Garcinia kola(Heckel) is a versatile tree indigenous to West and Central Africa. All parts of the tree have value in traditional medicine. Natural populations of the species have declined over the years due to overexploitation. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure ofG.kolais important for its management and conservation. The present study investigates the genetic diversity and population structureof G.kolapopulations in Benin using ultra-high-throughput diversity array technology (DArT) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. From the 102 accessions sampled, two were excluded from the final dataset owing to poor genotyping coverage. A total of 43,736 SNPs were reported, of which 12,585 were used for analyses after screening with quality control parameters including Minor allele frequency (>= 0.05), call rate (>= 80%), reproducibility (>= 95%), and polymorphic information content (>= 1%). Analysis revealed low genetic diversity with expected heterozygosity per population ranging from 0.196 to 0.228. Pairwise F-statistics (F-ST) revealed low levels of genetic differentiation between populations while an Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the majority of variation (97.86%) was within populations. Population structure analysis through clustering and discriminant analysis on principal component revealed two admixed clusters, implying little genetic structure. However, the model-based maximum likelihood in Admixture indicated only one genetic cluster. The present study indicated low genetic diversity ofG.kola, and interventions are needed to be tailored towards its conservation.
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