Natural Diversity in Stomatal Features of Cultivated and Wild Oryza Species. uri icon

abstract

  • Background Stomata in rice control a number of physiological processes by regulating gas and water exchange between the atmosphere and plant tissues. The impact of the structural diversity of these micropores on its conductance level is an important area to explore before introducing stomatal traits into any breeding program in order to increase photosynthesis and crop yield. Therefore, an intensive measurement of structural components of stomatal complex (SC) of twenty threeOryzaspecies spanning the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools of rice has been conducted. Results Extensive diversity was found in stomatal number and size in differentOryzaspecies andOryzacomplexes. Interestingly, the dynamics of stomatal traits inOryzafamily varies differently within differentOryzagenetic complexes. Example, the Sativa complex exhibits the greatest diversity in stomatal number, while the Officinalis complex is more diverse for its stomatal size. Combining the structural information with theOryzaphylogeny revealed that speciation has tended towards increasing stomatal density rather than stomatal size in rice family. Thus, the most recent species (i.e. the domesticated rice) eventually has developed smaller yet numerous stomata. Along with this, speciation has also resulted in a steady increase in stomatal conductance (anatomical,g(max)) in differentOryzaspecies. These two results unambiguously prove that increasing stomatal number (which results in stomatal size reduction) has increased the stomatal conductance in rice. Correlations of structural traits with the anatomical conductance, leaf carbon isotope discrimination ( increment C-13) and major leaf morphological and anatomical traits provide strong supports to untangle the ever mysterious dependencies of these traits in rice. The result displayed an expected negative correlation in the number and size of stomata; and positive correlations among the stomatal length, width and area with guard cell length, width on both abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. In addition,g(max)is found to be positively correlated with stomatal number and guard cell length. The increment C-13 values of rice species showed a positive correlation with stomatal number, which suggest an increased water loss with increased stomatal number. Interestingly, in contrast, the increment C-13 consistently shows a negative relationship with stomatal and guard cell size, which suggests that the water loss is less when the stomata are larger. Therefore, we hypothesize that increasing stomatal size, instead of numbers, is a better approach for breeding programs in order to minimize the water loss through stomata in rice. Conclusion Current paper generates useful data on stomatal profile of wild rice that is hitherto unknown for the rice science community. It has been proved here that the speciation has resulted in an increased stomatal number accompanied by size reduction duringOryza's evolutionary course; this has resulted in an increasedg(max)but reduced water use efficiency. Although may not be the sole driver of water use efficiency in rice, our data suggests that stomata are a potential target for modifying the currently low water use efficiency in domesticated rice. It is proposed thatOryza barthiican be used in traditional breeding programs in enhancing the stomatal size of elite rice cultivars.

publication date

  • 2020
  • 2020