Evaluation of lignin-enriched side-streams from different biomass conversion processes as thickeners in bio-lubricant formulations. uri icon

abstract

  • This study explores the suitability of residual lignin-containing fractions generated as side-streams in different conversion processes of eucalypt and pine woods as thickening agents in bio-lubricant formulations. These conversion processes included fermentable sugars extraction by autohydrolysis or steam explosion and kraft pulping. Structural properties of lignin fractions were characterized by FTIR, H-1 and C-13 NMR, two-dimensional NMR, TGA and SEC, whereas their compositions were analysed by standard analytical methods. On the other hand, chemical oleogels were prepared with NCO-functionalized residual lignin fractions, and characterized by means of rheological, tribological and AFM techniques. Hydrolysis lignin fractions exhibited a great content of carbohydrates, especially glucose (46.0-48.5%), xylose (4.3-15.6%) and lignin (32.5-39.9%) with a well-maintained structure, displaying the main inter-unit linkages and low phenolic content. By contrast, kraft lignin fractions presented a lower carbohydrate content, mainly xylose (3.4-4.3%), and higher content (44.9-67%) of severely degraded lignin, showing a dramatic reduction of inter-unit linkages, and thereby high phenolic content. The rheological response of NCO-functionalized lignin fractions-based oleogels is highly influenced by the composition and chemical structure of residual lignin fractions. Moreover, these oleogels presented suitable tribological properties with values of the friction coefficient lower than those typically exhibited by standard lubricating greases. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • 2020
  • 2020