High uptake and inward diffusion of iron fortificant in ultrasonicated milled rice uri icon

abstract

  • Nutritional iron content in milled rice is generally lost as a result of milling due to removal of aleurone layer. Iron fortification in milled rice is recommended to regain the lost nutrients and address the malnutrition issues. This work investigates the uptake of iron and its diffusion into the kernel on ultrasonic-treated milled rice. Rice samples were subjected to ultrasonic waves resulting in the formation of microporous surfaces and the creation of fissures in the milled rice. Sonication followed by soaking in aqueous iron solution resulted in the uptake of 321 +/- 13.43 mg of iron per kg of rice, a 28-fold increase compared to the endogenous iron content of milled rice with retention of 82.9% upon washing and cooking. Cross-section mapping (mu-XRF) of the concentration of the fortificant into the uncooked grains showed inward diffusion at different rates reaching into the kernel core. Results also show that sonication decreased the amount of water-soluble phosphorus in rice suggesting the removal of potentially anti-nutrient physic acid. Textural analysis of ultrasonic-treated iron-fortified rice premix revealed favorable properties that can be advantageous for its consumer acceptability.

publication date

  • 2020
  • 2020