Balancing the double-edged sword effect of increased resistant starch content and its impact on rice texture: its genetics and molecular physiological mechanisms. uri icon

abstract

  • Resistant starch (RS) is the portion of starch that escapes gastrointestinal digestion and acts as a substrate for fermentation of probiotic bacteria in the gut. Aside from enhancing gut health, RS contributes to a lower glycemic index. A genome-wide association study coupled with targeted gene association studies was conducted utilizing a diverse panel of 281 resequenced Indica rice lines comprising of similar to 2.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Low-to-intermediate RS phenotypic variations were identified in the rice diversity panel, resulting in novel associations of RS to several genes associated with amylopectin biosynthesis and degradation. Selected rice lines encoding superior alleles of SSIIa with medium RS and inferior alleles with low RS groups were subjected to detailed transcriptomic, metabolomic, non-starch dietary fibre (DF), starch structural and textural attributes. The gene regulatory networks highlighted the importance of a protein phosphatase alongside multiple genes of starch metabolism. Metabolomics analyses resulted in the identification of several metabolite hubs (carboxylic acid, sugars and polyamines) in the medium RS group. Among DF, mannose and galactose from the water-insoluble fraction were found to be highly associated with low and medium RS lines, respectively. Starch structural analyses revealed that a moderate increase in RS is also linked to an elevation of amylose 1 and amylose 2 fractions. Although rice lines with medium RS content negatively affected textural and viscosity properties in comparison to low RS, the textural property of medium RS lines was in the same acceptable range as IR64, a rice mega variety popular in Asia.

publication date

  • 2020
  • 2020