Appraisal of wheat genomics for gene discovery and breeding applications: a special emphasis on advances in Asia
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Key message We discussed the most recent efforts in wheat functional genomics to discover new genes and their deployment in breeding with special emphasis on advances in Asian countries. Wheat research community is making significant progress to bridge genotype-to-phenotype gap and then applying this knowledge in genetic improvement. The advances in genomics and phenomics have intrigued wheat researchers in Asia to make best use of this knowledge in gene and trait discovery. These advancements include, but not limited to, map-based gene cloning, translational genomics, gene mapping, association genetics, gene editing and genomic selection. We reviewed more than 57 homeologous genes discovered underpinning important traits and multiple strategies used for their discovery. Further, the complementary advancements in wheat phenomics and analytical approaches to understand the genetics of wheat adaptability, resilience to climate extremes and resistance to pest and diseases were discussed. The challenge to build a gold standard reference genome sequence of bread wheat is now achieved and several de novo reference sequences from the cultivars representing different gene pools will be available soon. New pan-genome sequencing resources of wheat will strengthen the foundation required for accelerated gene discovery and provide more opportunities to practice the knowledge-based breeding.
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