Genetic dissection of developmental responses of agro-morphological traits under different doses of nutrient fertilizers using high-density SNP markers.
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The production and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are primarily influenced by the application of the critical nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). However, excessive application of these fertilizers is detrimental to the environment and increases the cost of production. Hence, there is a need to develop varieties that simultaneously increase yields under both optimal and suboptimal rates of fertilizer application by maximizing nutrient use efficiency (NuUE). To unravel the hidden genetic variation and understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms of NuUE, three different mapping populations (MPs; BC1F5) derived from three donors (Haoannong, Cheng-Hui 448, and Zhong 413) and recipient Weed Tolerant Rice 1 were developed. A total of three favorable agronomic traits (FATs) were considered as the measure of NuUE. Analysis of variance and descriptive statistics indicated the existence of genetic variation for NuUE and quantitative inheritance of FATs. The genotypic data from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from Tunable Genotyping-By-Sequencing (tGBS) and phenotypic values were used for locating the genomic regions conferring NuUE. A total of 19 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, out of which 11 QTLs were putative on eight chromosomes, which individually explained 17.02% to 34.85% of the phenotypic variation. Notably, qLC-II_1 and qLC-II_11 detected at zero fertilizer application showed higher performance for LC under zero percentage of NPK fertilizer. The remarkable findings of the present study are that the detected QTLs were associated in building tolerance to low/no nutrient application and six candidate genes on chromosomes 2 and 5 within these putative QTLs were found associated with low nutrient tolerance and related to several physiological and metabolic pathways involved in abiotic stress tolerance. The identified superior introgressed lines (ILs) and trait-associated genetic regions can be effectively used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for NuUE breeding programs.
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