Divergence with gene flow is driven by local adaptation to temperature and soil phosphorus concentration in teosinte subspecies (Zea mays parviglumis and Zea mays mexicana) uri icon

abstract

  • Patterns of genomic divergence between hybridizing taxa can be heterogeneous along the genome. Both differential introgression and local adaptation may contribute to this pattern. Here, we analysed two teosinte subspecies, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana, to test whether their divergence has occurred in the face of gene flow and to infer which environmental variables have been important drivers of their ecological differentiation. We generated 9,780 DArTseqTM SNPs for 47 populations, and used an additional data set containing 33,454 MaizeSNP50 SNPs for 49 populations. With these data, we inferred features of demographic history and performed genome wide scans to determine the number of outlier SNPs associated with climate and soil variables. The two data sets indicate that divergence has occurred or been maintained despite continuous gene flow and/or secondary contact. Most of the significant SNP associations were to temperature and to phosphorus concentration in the soil. A large proportion of these candidate SNPs were located in regions of high differentiation that had been identified previously as putative inversions. We therefore propose that genomic differentiation in teosintes has occurred by a process of adaptive divergence, with putative inversions contributing to reduced gene flow between locally adapted populations.

publication date

  • 2019
  • 2019