Comparisons of molecular diversity indices, selective sweeps and population structure of African rice with its wild progenitor and Asian rice
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Key messageThe extent of molecular diversity parameters across three rice species was compared using large germplasm collection genotyped with genomewide SNPs and SNPs that fell within selective sweep regions.AbstractPrevious studies conducted on limited number of accessions have reported very low genetic variation in African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) as compared to its wild progenitor (O. barthii A. Chev.) and to Asian rice (O. sativa L.). Here, we characterized a large collection of African rice and compared its molecular diversity indices and population structure with the two other species using genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNPs that mapped within selective sweeps. A total of 3245 samples representing African rice (2358), Asian rice (772) and O. barthii (115) were genotyped with 26,073 physically mapped SNPs. Using all SNPs, the level of marker polymorphism, average genetic distance and nucleotide diversity in African rice accounted for 59.1%, 63.2% and 37.1% of that of O. barthii, respectively. SNP polymorphism and overall nucleotide diversity of the African rice accounted for 20.1-32.1 and 16.3-37.3% of that of the Asian rice, respectively. We identified 780 SNPs that fell within 37 candidate selective sweeps in African rice, which were distributed across all 12 rice chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity of the African rice estimated from the 780 SNPs was 8.3x10(-4), which is not only 20-fold smaller than the value estimated from all genomewide SNPs (=1.6x10(-2)), but also accounted for just 4.1%, 0.9% and 2.1% of that of O. barthii, lowland Asian rice and upland Asian rice, respectively. The genotype data generated for a large collection of rice accessions conserved at the AfricaRice genebank will be highly useful for the global rice community and promote germplasm use.
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