Genetic diversity in cultivated yam bean ( Pachyrhizus spp.) evaluated through multivariate analysis of morphological and agronomic traits uri icon

abstract

  • Yam bean [Pachyrhizus DC.] is a legume genus of the subtribe Glycininae with three root crop species [P. erosus (L.) Urban, P. tuberosus (Lam.) Spreng., and P. ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi]. Two of the four cultivar groups found in P. tuberosus were studied: the roots of 'Ashipa' cultivars with low root dry matter (DM) content similar to P. erosus and P. ahipa are traditionally consumed raw as fruits, whereas 'Chuin' cultivars with high root DM content are cooked and consumed like manioc roots. Interspecific hybrids between yam bean species are generally completely fertile. This study examines the genetic diversity of the three crop species, their potentials for breeding and the identification of useful traits to differentiate among yam bean genotypes and accessions. In total, 34 entries (genotypes and accessions) were grown during 2000aEuro'2001 at two locations in Benin, West Africa, and 75 morphological and agronomical traits, encompassing 50 quantitative and 25 qualitative characters were measured. Diversity between entries was analyzed using principal component analysis, cluster analysis, multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. Furthermore, phenotypic variation within and among species was investigated. Intra- and interspecific phenotypic diversity was quantified using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index. A character discard was tested by variance component estimations and multiple regression analysis. Quantitative trait variation ranged from 0.81 (for total harvest index) to 49.35% (for no. of storage roots per plant). Interspecific phenotypic variation was higher than intraspecific for quantitative traits in contrast to qualitative characters. Phenotypic variation was higher in overall for quantitative than qualitative traits. In general, intraspecific phenotypic variation ranged from 0.00 to 82.61%, and from 0.00 to 80.03% for quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively. Interspecific phenotypic variation ranged from 0.00 to 95.02%, and 0.00aEuro'81.58% for the two trait types, respectively. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H') was in general high and over 0.80 for most of the trait. Diversity within P. tuberosus was higher than within P. erosus and P. ahipa. Across the 50 quantitative and 25 qualitative traits, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index of intra- and interspecific variation was around 0.83 and 0.51, respectively and was lower for qualitative than for quantitative traits. Monomorphism was observed in eight qualitative traits and one quantitative character. The first, second and third principal components explained, respectively, 39.1, 21.3 and 8.3% of the total variation in all traits. Pachyrhizus erosus, P. ahipa, and P. tuberosus ('Chuin' and 'Ashipa') were clearly separated from each other by these analyses. Multivariate analysis of variance indicates significant differences between Pachyrhizus species for all individual or grouped traits. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the first two discriminant functions were almost significant. Biases due to unbalanced sample size used per species were small. Within each species a similar amount of diversity was observed and was determinable to 70% by only ten traits. We conclude that the cultivated yam bean species represent distinct genepools and each exhibits similarly large amounts of genetic diversity.

publication date

  • 2018
  • 2018