Implications of less tail end water on livelihoods of small farmers in Pakistan uri icon

abstract

  • In Pakistan, about 80% of the cropped area is irrigated using canal irrigation, and water availability is closely linked to the location of the farm. Using data collected from 950 farmers through a field survey covering four provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan), this study aimed to assess the impact of location, that is, head' versus tail' on water availability and its impact on crop yield, household income, food security and poverty levels. The censored least absolute deviation was used to estimate farmer participation in water markets, and the propensity score matching was used to assess impacts on yield of wheat and rice, household income and poverty levels as well as land rent and water scarcity. The results show that farmers situated at the head of the water source have higher wheat and rice yields in the range of 2-3 maunds per acre. Household income levels are higher in the range of PKR 8455-14,673, and poverty levels are lower (+3% to 5%). The land rent at the head is higher compared to the tail while water scarcity is also less at the head. The study indicated that farmers' status plays a major role in land location and access to irrigation water.

publication date

  • 2017
  • 2017