Understanding the determinants of alternate energy options for cooking in the Himalayas: Empirical evidence from the Himalayan region of Pakistan uri icon


  • The current study is based on a comprehensive dataset collected through a primary survey of 500 farmers from the seven districts of the Himalayan region of northern Pakistan: Ghizer, Gilgit, Diamer, Astore, Skardu, Ghance, and Hunza-Nagar. The paper uses multivariate probit, Poisson regression, censored least absolute deviation and a propensity score matching (PSM) approach to understand the determinants of alternative sources of cooking energy for far-flung households in the highlands of Pakistan. The empirical results indicate that young and educated farmers with large land holdings use more than one energy source for cooking purposes. Severe weather and remoteness force the small farmers in the Himalayas to rely on one or two energy sources only. The policy should focus on improving infrastructure, and guidance regarding severe weather management can assist in providing better energy to remote villages during the severe winters. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • 2017
  • 2017

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