Rice Production Systems uri icon

abstract

  • Rice is grown in more than 100 countries spread across six continents and in varying agroecological and socioeconomic conditions. Rice production systems were classified over years differently depending on the context. In this chapter, the method of rice establishment is considered as criteria for classifying rice production systems across the globe. An attempt is made here to summarize the information on rice production systems, resources used, crop productivity attained, the challenges encountered, and possible research needs for improving productivity in rice production systems, to meet the future food demands. Based on the major methods of rice establishment of the world, the rice production systems are categorized as (a) transplanted rice (TPR) production systems and (b) direct-seeded rice (DSR) production systems. DSR production systems are further categorized as (i) dry-seeded rice (dry-DSR) production system, (ii) wet-seeded rice (wet-DSR) production system, and (iii) water-seeded rice (water-DSR) production system. The productivity of TPR and DSR was reported to be similar when the best management practices are adopted. As already occurred in the developed world, a shift in adoption toward DSR production systems is occurring in developing world, due to advantages of DSR production systems such as lesser cost of production, increased resource (water, labor, and energy) use efficiency, and income compared to TPR. Lower environmental footprint was found to be another advantage of DSR production systems when they were combined with other conservation agricultural practices. The need for continuous research efforts was stressed for understanding the evolving rice production systems across the globe and to develop practical integrated crop management strategies that improve rice productivity and production effectively, sustainably, and economically with minimal environment footprint

publication date

  • 2017
  • 2017