Installation des jeunes agriculteurs et pluriactivité au Costa Rica uri icon

abstract

  • Small-scale family agriculture has been encouraged for several years by international institutions as an answer to global issues (food security and climate change), especially in Southern countries where this type of agriculture still prevails. One group of key actors is still poorly analyzed in agricultural studies: the young farmers. Yet they are potential innovators, they insure the generational renewal and thus maintain family agriculture. This paper studies the settling process of young farmers in two communities in Costa Rica resulting from land reforms. We show an important social change with the development of part-time farming activity. Three types of settling are identified: the taking over, the resumption and the creation of a new farm. Whereas resumption and creation trigger changes in the farm and in agriculture, taking over, the most common case, does not give rise to change. Territory characteristics, different capital endowment and the relationship to the former farm owner, who is often the father, can explain these different types of settlings. Our analysis highlights the necessity to consider the diversity of settling processes to promote adapted policy aiming at facilitating the generational renewal in family agriculture.
  • Small-scale family agriculture has been encouraged for several years by international institutions as an answer to global issues (food security and climate change), especially in Southern countries where this type of agriculture still prevails. One group of key actors is still poorly analyzed in agricultural studies: the young farmers. Yet they are potential innovators, they insure the generational renewal and thus maintain family agriculture. This paper studies the settling process of young farmers in two communities in Costa Rica resulting from land reforms. We show an important social change with the development of part-time farming activity. Three types of settling are identified: the taking over, the resumption and the creation of a new farm. Whereas resumption and creation trigger changes in the farm and in agriculture, taking over, the most common case, does not give rise to change. Territory characteristics, different capital endowment and the relationship to the former farm owner, who is often the father, can explain these different types of settlings. Our analysis highlights the necessity to consider the diversity of settling processes to promote adapted policy aiming at facilitating the generational renewal in family agriculture. Résumé Depuis quelques années, la petite agriculture familiale est mise sur le devant de la scène par les institutions internationales et présentée comme étant susceptible de répondre aux enjeux globaux (sécurité alimentaire et changement climatique), et ce, notamment, dans les pays du Sud où ce type d?agriculture reste majoritaire. Un groupe d?acteurs clés est toutefois oublié des études agricoles : les jeunes agriculteurs, qui sont pourtant de potentiels innovateurs et qui assurent le relais entre les générations et le maintien de ces agricultures. Cet article étudie les processus d?installation des jeunes agriculteurs familiaux au Costa Rica, dans deux communautés issues de réformes agraires. Nous montrons qu?un important changement social est à l??uvre avec la montée du travail à temps partiel dans l?activité agricole. Nous mettons en évidence l?existence de trois types d?installation distincts que nous qualifions de relève, reprise et création. Alors que la reprise et la création génèrent des changements dans l?exploitation et dans l?activité agricole, la relève, plus fréquente, n?entraîne aucun changement significatif. Les facteurs explicatifs sont à chercher du côté de logiques territoriales, de dotation en capitaux différenciés et de la relation avec l?ancien chef d?exploitation qui est souvent le père. Notre analyse souligne l?importance de la prise en compte de la diversité des formes d?installation pour promouvoir des politiques adaptées facilitant le renouvellement générationnel dans l?agriculture familiale dans les pays du Sud

publication date

  • 2017
  • 2017
  • 2017