Genetics, Physiological Mechanisms and Breeding of Flood-Tolerant Rice (Oryza sativa L.). uri icon

abstract

  • Flooding of rice fields is a serious problem in the river basins of South and South-East Asia where about 15 Mha of rice cultivation is regularly affected. Flooding creates hypoxic conditions resulting in poor germination and seedling establishment. Flash flooding, where rice plants are completely submerged for 10-15 d during their vegetative stage, causes huge losses. Water stagnation for weeks to months also leads to substantial yield losses when large parts of rice aerial tissues are inundated. The low-yielding traditional varieties and landraces of rice adapted to these flooding conditions have been replaced by flood-sensitive high-yielding rice varieties. The `FR13A' rice variety and the Submergence 1A (SUB1A) gene were identified for flash flooding and subsequently introgressed to high-yielding rice varieties. The challenge is to find superior alleles of the SUB1A gene, or even new genes that may confer greater tolerance to submergence. Similarly, genes have been identified in tolerant landraces of rice for their ability to survive by rapid stem elongation (SNORKEL1 and SNORKEL2) during deep-water flooding, and for anaerobic germination ability (TPP7). Research on rice genotypes and novel genes that are tolerant to prolonged water stagnation is in progress. These studies will greatly assist in devising more efficient and precise molecular breeding strategies for developing climateresilient high-yielding rice varieties for flood-prone regions. Here we review the state of our knowledge of flooding tolerance in rice and its application in varietal improvement.

publication date

  • 2017
  • 2017
  • 2017