Organizational and Institutional Barriers to the Effectiveness of Public Expenditures: The Case of Agricultural Research Investments in Nigeria and Ghana
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Where investments in agricultural research do not yield positive impact on incomes and food security, organizational and institutional bottlenecks can be critical factors. We illustrate this point by using the cases of Ghana and Nigeria, two of the largest agricultural research systems in sub-Saharan Africa. This article combines elements of organizational design, institutional analysis and innovation systems literature to empirically measure organizational performance and its determinants. Findings suggest weak monitoring and impact-orientation in sample research organizations. Unstable funds, weak infrastructure and unconducive work environment are binding constraints in increasing research productivity and outreach in Ghana and Nigeria. Different priorities for these two countries emerged from this article: quality of human resources seems to be the priority for Ghana, while adequacy of physical resources and implementation of organizational management systems seem to be the priority for Nigeria.
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