Effect of pre-emergence herbicides and timing of soil saturation on the control of six major rice weeds and their phytotoxic effects on rice seedlings uri icon

abstract

  • The study evaluated the effects of pre-emergence herbicides and their rates [oxadiazon (0.5 and 1 kg ai ha(-1)), pendimethalin (1 and 2 kg ai ha(-1)), and pretilachlor with safener (0.6 kg ai ha(-1))], and time of soil saturation establishment after herbicide application [1, 3, 5, and 7 days after spray (DAS)] in controlling the six major rice weeds, and their phytotoxic effects on rice seedling growth. All herbicides provided 100% control of Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crus-galli, Leptochloa chinensis, Cyperus iria, and Amaranthus spinosus. Murdannia nudiflora was 100% controlled by oxadiazon and pretilachlor with safener, but poorly controlled (22-75%) by pendimethalin. Pendimethalin at 2 kg ai ha(-1) was more effective than at 1 kg ai ha(-1) in reducing the biomass of the stem, leaf, and root of M. nudiflora irrespective of timing of soil saturation. Rice plant height was reduced to a maximum (77-96%) by pendimethalin at 2.0 kg ai ha(-1) followed by oxadiazon at 1.0 kg ai ha(-1) (38-70%) compared to the non-treated control. In contrast, the tallest rice plants were observed in the non-treated control and those treated with pretilachlor with safener which had 80-100% rice plant survival. The lowest rice plant survival of 0, 6, 7, and 16% was found in the soil applied with pendimethalin at 2 kg ai ha(-1) and saturated at 1, 3, 5, and 7 DAS, respectively, which was followed by oxadiazon at 1 kg ai ha(-1). All herbicides except pretilachlor with safener reduced SPAD values with early soil saturation, which improved with delay in soil saturation timing. Pendimethalin at 2 kg ai ha-1 reduced the SPAD values of rice plants by 100-164% relative to the non-treated control and produced the highest phytotoxicity symptoms. Pendimethalin also reduced rice shoot biomass more than oxadiazon, which was compounded by early soil saturation after herbicide application. Pretilachlor with safener was the only herbicide that exhibited low phytotoxic symptoms on.rice plants and did not reduce leaf, stem, root, and shoot biomass of rice. Percent reduction in rice leaf, stem, root, and shoot biomass by the different herbicides was in the order of pendimethalin 2 > oxadiazon 1 > pendimethalin 1 > oxadiazon 0.5 > pretilachlor with safener 0.6 kg ai ha-1. Each herbicide treatment reduced rice growth parameters as soil saturation was delayed in the order of 1 DAS > 3 DAS > 5 DAS > 7 DAS. The study suggests that soil water content and herbicide rates are important factors in influencing herbicide phytotoxicity in rice. The application of herbicides should be avoided when the soil is too wet, and irrigation should be delayed at least one week after herbicide application. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • 2016
  • 2016
  • 2016