High Temperature Enhances the Resistance of Cultivated African Rice, Oryza glaberrima, to Bacterial Blight
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Rice bacterial blight (BB) is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and is responsible for substantial yield loss worldwide. Host resistance remains the most feasible control measure. However, pathogen variability leads to the failure of certain resistance genes to control the disease, and climate change with high amplitudes of heat predisposes the host plant to pathogen invasion. Due to pressure in natural selection, landrace species often carry a wide range of unique traits conferring tolerance of stress. Therefore, exploring their genetic background for host resistance could enable the identification of broad-spectrum resistance to combined abiotic and biotic stresses. Nineteen Oryza glaberrima accessions and O. sativa rice variety SUPA were evaluated for BB resistance under high temperature (35 and 31 degrees C day and night, respectively) using 14X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains originated from the Philippines. Under normal temperature, most of the accessions showed resistance to 9 strains (64.3%) and accession TOG6007 showed broad-spectrum resistance to 12 strains (85.7%). Under high temperature, most accessions showed a reduction in BB disease, whereas, accession TOG5620 showed disease reduction from all the X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains under high temperature. Molecular characterization using gene-based and linked markers for BB resistance genes Xa4, xa5, Xa7, xa13, and Xa21 revealed the susceptible alleles of Xa4, xa5, xa13, and Xa21 in O. glaberrima. However, no allele of Xa7 was detected among O. glaberrima accessions. Our results suggest that O. glaberrima accessions contain a BB resistance different from the Xa gene type. Genome-wide association mapping could be used to identify quantitative trait loci that are associated with BB resistance or combined BB resistance and high-temperature tolerance.
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