The global adaptation of bread wheat at high latitudes uri icon

abstract

  • Spring sown bread wheat is grown at high latitudes in Europe, Asia and North America. However, it is not clear what the associations are among environments, particularly in Asia and North America, and whether or not cultivars developed in one region may adapt in another. A yield trial comprised of cultivars developed in northern Kazakhstan, western Siberia, the Canadian Prairies, northern USA, northeastern China and broadly adapted genotypes bred by CIMMYT in Mexico was planted in all the above mentioned environments in 2002-2004. In general, cultivars performed best within the regions they were developed. However, cultivars developed in northern Kazakhstan/western Siberia were the most broadly adapted at high latitudes; they were not significantly different for grain yield from the locally developed cultivars in both China and Canada. Stronger photoperiod response, greater plant height and larger seed weight appeared to be key adaptive features of these materials. At lower latitudes, the Kazakh/Siberian cultivars were significantly lower yielding than all other materials. When low latitude Mexican sites were removed from the analysis, the Chinese locations tended to associate, whereas most Canadian and Kazak/Siberian locations were negatively associated with those from China. SSR analysis of the cultivars from each region split the materials into two general groups, one based on North American cultivars and one comprised of Kazakh/Siberian and Chinese cultivars. Lines developed in Mexico were spread across these two groupings. Evidence suggests that considerable scope exists to improve bread wheat adaptation at high latitudes globally through intercrossing materials originating from Asia and North America.

publication date

  • 2006
  • 2006
  • 2006