Response of pine natural regeneration to small-scale spatial variation in a managed Mediterranean mountain forest. uri icon


  • A Pinus sylvestris Mediterranean mountain forest in central Spain.
  • Conclusions
  • Location
  • Methods
  • Questions
  • Results
  • Seedlings and saplings presented a clumped structure under both types of management and their distribution was found to be related to the spatial distribution of favourable microsites. Regeneration was positively related to conditions of partial cover with high soil water content during the summer. More than half of the explained variance was spatially structured in both types of stand. This percentage was particularly high in the even-aged stands where the pattern of regeneration was highly influenced by the gaps created by harvesting.
  • The spatial distribution of the tree and shrub upperstory strongly influences regeneration patterns of P. sylvestris. Current management practices, promoting small gaps, partial canopy cover and moderate shade in even-aged stands, or favouring tree and shrub cover in the case of uneven-aged stands, appears to provide suitable conditions for the natural regeneration of P. sylvestris in a Mediterranean climate.
  • Upperstory trees and regeneration (seedlings and saplings) were mapped in four 0.5-ha plots located in two types of stand with different management intensities (even-aged and uneven-aged stands). Environmental variables were recorded at the nodes of a grid within the plots. The relationships between the upperstory and regeneration were evaluated by bivariate point pattern analysis; redundancy analysis ordination and variation partitioning were performed to characterize regeneration niches and the importance of the spatial component.
  • What influence do management practices and previous tree and shrub stand structure have on the occurrence and development of natural regeneration of Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean mountain forests? How are the fine-scale and environmental patterns of resources affected and what impact does this have on the distribution of the regeneration?

publication date

  • 2009
  • 2009