Weed Management in Direct‐Seeded Rice uri icon

abstract

  • Of 1800 species reported as weeds of rice, those of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae are predominant. The adoption of direct-seeding has resulted in a change in the relative abundance of weed species in rice crops. In particular, Echinochloa spp., Ischaemum rugosum, Cyperus difformis, and Fimbristylis miliacea are widely adapted to conditions of DSR. Species exhibit variability in germination and establishment response to the water regime postsowing, which is a major factor in interspecifically selecting constituents of the weed flora. The relatively rapid emergence of "weedy" (red) rice, rice phenotypically similar to cultivars but exhibiting undesirable agronomic traits, has been observed in several Asian countries practicing DSR, and this poses a severe threat to the sustainability of the production system.
  • Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a principal source of food for more than half of the world population, especially in South and Southeast Asia and Latin America. Elsewhere, it represents a high-value commodity crop. Change in the method of crop establishment from traditional manual transplanting of seedlings to direct-seeding has occurred in many Asian countries in the last two decades in response to rising production costs, especially for labor and water. Direct-seeding of rice (DSR) may involve sowing pregerminated seed onto a paddled soil surface (wet-seeding) or into shallow standing water (water-seeding), or dry seed into a prepared seedbed (dry-seeding). In Europe, Australia, and the United States, direct-seeding is highly mechanized. The risk of crop yield loss due to competition from weeds by all seeding methods is higher than for transplanted rice because of the absence of the size differential between the crop and weeds and the suppressive effect of standing water on weed growth at crop establishment.
  • Stale seedbeds, tillage practices for land leveling, choice of competitive rice cultivars, mechanical weeders, herbicides, and associated water management are component technologies essential to the control of weeds in DSR. Herbicides in particular are an important tool of weed management, but hand weeding is either partially or extensively practiced in countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Though yet to be globally commercialized, transgenic rice varieties engineered for herbicide resistance are a potential means of weed control. The release of herbicide-resistant rice for red rice control in the United States has indicated the need to critically examine mitigation methods for the control of gene flow. Integrating preventive and interventional methods of weed control remains essential in managing weed communities in DSR, both to prohibit the evolution of herbicide resistance and to maximize the relative contributions of individual components where herbicides are not widely used. There remains a need to further develop understanding of the mechanisms and dynamics of rice weed competition and of the community dynamics of weed populations in DSR to underpin sustainable weed management practices. (c) 2007, Elsevier Inc.

publication date

  • 2007
  • 2007
  • 2007