Variation in endosperm protein composition and technological quality properties in durum wheat uri icon

abstract

  • Durum wheat quality is controlled by endosperm protein content and composition. Electrophoretic, protein content and SDS sedimentation analyses were carried out on a large collection of accessions of durum wheat from Turkey, and compared with Italian cultivars. A number of patterns were detected, resulting from the combination of different alleles at genomes A and B, and new allelic variants were identified. Genotypes with the same allele at Gli-B1 showed inconsistencies in the comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), suggesting caution in considering gamma-gliadins as genetic markers for pasta quality. Variation in protein content and SDS sedimentation values was wider in the Turkish material than in the Italian cultivars, the values of which were in line with cultivars from Australia, Canada, France, and the USA. A substantial amount of the variation in gluten properties was explained in terms of protein composition, with LMW-GS making the largest contribution. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses were carried out on two biotypes of the Italian cultivar Lira that differ at the Gli-B1/Glu-B3 loci (Lira 42 has gamma-42, LMW-1, and poor quality; whereas Lira 45 has gamma-45, LMW-2, and good quality). The results indicated that differences in quality may be due to: 1) the absolute amount of LMW glutenins which was greater in LMW-2; 2) the relative predominance of LMW-s type and LMW-m type subunits in Lira 45 glutenins which act as polymer chain extenders; and 3) the higher proportion of the alpha-type and gamma-type glutenin subunits, in Lira 42 glutenins, which have an additional (nine) cysteine residue in the N-terminal region and act as glutenin chain terminators. The conclusion reached was that breeding for quality should consider selection for LMW-GS and against alpha-type and gamma-type glutenin subunits.

publication date

  • 1998
  • 1998