Effects of seasonal variation in temperature and cultivar on yield and yield determination of irrigated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) during the dry season in the Sahel of West Africa uri icon

abstract

  • In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa there is potential for groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)to be grown as a dry-season crop where irrigation is available. However, there are substantialvariations in the temperatures during the post-rainy season that can be expected to in¯uence growthand yield. An experiment at the ICRISAT Sahelian Centre was done in order to study the effect ofsowing date on phenology, yield and the processes of yield determination for four groundnut cultivarsunder irrigation in the dry seasons of 1990}91 and 1991}92. Starting on 15 November, eight sowingdates at 2-weekly intervals were tested. Sowing date signi®cantly affected phenology (time toemergence, ¯owering and maturity) with groundnut sown in November}December taking the longesttime to reach these phenological stages. November and December sowings gave the highest pod yieldwithin each year, despite the lowest crop growth rates (B), and yield declined progressively as sowingoccurred later (50%decrease by March) despite increasing B. The observed responses appear to havebeen due to the effect of temperature differences during the pod-®lling phase on partitioning.Partitioning (p) to pods was optimized at c. 30 C, with some indication of cultivar differences inpartitioning response to temperature. Across all the environments, cultivars displayed substantialdifferences in yield stability. When sown late, yields were low and lines with high partitioning werethe best. When sown early in the post-rainy season, cultivars with a high B value were the betterchoices. Plant habit differences and B suggest that radiation interception was a limitation to yield,particularly when the crops were sown in the cool months of the year. However, haulm yield and cropgrowth rates were not consistently affected by sowing date across the years, and cultivarsdemonstrated different degrees of stability for B. It is concluded that where pod has a price advantageover fodder, irrigated groundnut for the dry season should be sown in November to allow the cropto develop under the relatively cool temperatures that maximize pod yield. Further agronomicresearch is suggested to maximize B for individual cultivars for given sowing dates

publication date

  • 1998
  • 1998