Has the green revolution been sustained? The quantitative impact of the seed-fertilizer revolution in Pakistan revisited
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Quantitative impacts of the Green Revolution on food production in the Punjab of Pakistan are reviewed and the effects of different technologies on wheat yields over the past two decades decomposed. New quantitative evidence of sustainability problems in irrigated systems is presented. The yield increases expected in the post-Green Revolution period from the further spread of modern wheat varieties, a tripling of fertilizer dosage, and the release of newer higher yielding varieties have been cancelled by problems resulting from increased cropping intensity, use of poor quality groundwater, low fertilizer efficiency, and increased weed and disease losses. New directions in institutional policies and research and extension strategies are outlined to improve efficiency and sustainability in wheat production and prevent Pakistan from becoming a major food grain importer in the coming decades.
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