Genetic diversity and host differentiation among isolates of Phytophthora infestans from cultivated potato and wild solanaceous hosts in Peru uri icon

abstract

  • To test the hypothesis that isolates of Phytophthora infestans attacking wild Solanaceae exhibit specialization for particular host species, 115 isolates of P. infestans were collected from cultivated potatoes, nontuber-bearing Solanum spp. of the Basarthrum section and wild tomatoes from five departments in the northern and central highlands of Peru, and characterized using several neutral markers. All isolates belonged to one of four clonal lineages described previously in Peru: EC-1, US-1, PE-3 and PE-7. There was a strong association of three lineages with host species: PE-3 was only isolated from cultivated potato, while PE-7 and US-1 were only isolated from nontuber-bearing Solanum spp. (Basarthrum section and wild tomatoes). EC-1 was isolated from all host groups sampled. A subset (n = 74) of the isolates was evaluated for metalaxyl resistance. High levels of resistance were found almost exclusively in EC-1 and PE-3, while US-1 and PE-7 isolates were generally sensitive. In a detached-leaf assay for lesion diameter using five EC-1 isolates from S. caripense and seven EC-1 isolates from cultivated potato, there was a significant interaction between isolate origin and inoculated host, caused by higher aggressiveness of EC-1 from cultivated potato on its host of origin. In a comparison of EC-1 (seven isolates from cultivated potato) and US-1 (three isolates from S. caripense), each pathogen lineage was more aggressive on its original host species, causing a highly significant interaction between isolate origin and inoculated host. Wild tomatoes and nontuber-bearing Solanum spp. harbour several pathogen lineages in Peru and could serve as reservoirs of inoculum that might contribute to epidemics on potato or tomato. Potential risks associated with the use of wild Solanum hosts as sources of resistance to P. infestans are discussed.

publication date

  • 2005
  • 2005