Rice Pest Constraints in Tropical Asia: Quantification of Yield Losses Due to Rice Pests in a Range of Production Situations uri icon

abstract

  • A series of experiments was conducted where a range of injuries due to rice pests (pathogens, insects, and weeds) was manipulated simultaneously with a range of production factors (fertilizer input, water supply, crop establishment method, variety) in different seasons and years. These factors were chosen to represent lowland rice production situations characterized in surveys conducted in tropical Asia and their corresponding range of attainable yield. Experiments complemented one another in exploring the response surface of rice yields to yield-limiting and yield-reducing factors. The resulting experimental data base consisted of 445 individual plots and involved 11 manipulated injuries in a range of attainable yields of 2 to 11 t ha(-1). A first, nonparametric, multivariate analysis led to a hierarchy of potential injuries, from marginally (e.g., bacterial leaf blight) to extremely harmful (e.g., rice tungro disease). A second, parametric, multivariate approach resulted in a multiple regression model involving factors generated by principal component analysis on injuries that adequately described the variation in actual yield. One major finding was that some (attainable yield x injury factors) interactions significantly contributed to the description of variation in actual yield, indicating that some injuries (or their combinations) had a stronger or weaker yield-reducing effect, depending on the level of attainable yield. For instance, yield losses due to sheath blight, weed infestation, and rice tungro disease tend to increase, remain stable, and decrease, respectively, with increasing attainable yields. Back-computations using the principal component regression model estimated yield losses caused by individual injuries, using the mean injury levels in a population of farmers' fields surveyed across tropical Asia. The results indicate that sheath blight, brown spot, and leaf blast are diseases that cause important losses (between 1 and 10%) regionally. Among the insect injuries, only white heads caused by stem borers appear of relevance (2.3% yield losses). These injuries, however, do not match in importance those caused by weeds, whether outgrowing the rice crop canopy (WA) or not (WB), both types of injuries causing about 20% yield losses when considered individually. When all mean injuries were combined into one mean injury profile occurring at a regional attainable yield of 5.5 t ha(-1), a mean yield loss of 37.2% was estimated, indicating that injuries were less than additive in their yield-reducing effects. Scenario analyses were conducted in a set of (production situations x injury profiles) combinations characterized from surveys in farmers' fields in tropical Asia. Depending on the scenario chosen, losses ranging from 24 to 41% were found.

publication date

  • 2000
  • 2000
  • 2000