Speciation, Cytogenetics, and Utilization of Arachis Species uri icon

abstract

  • Utilization of wild species for improvement of cultivated forms has beeninvestigated since Faircloth made the first interspecific hybrids in 1717.Many wild species have been of value in crop improvement for a largenumber of traits (Harlan, 1976; Hawkes, 1977; Stalker, 1980a; Hadley andOpenshaw, 1980). However, in leguminous oilseeds, utilization of speciesgermplasm has proven difficult, in large part because of barriers to interspecifichybridization between species (Smartt, 1979). Further, sterilityoften restricts introgression from wild to cultivated accessions even wheninitial hybridization is possible. Interspecific hybridization is also difficultamong the peanut species in the genus Arachis, but breeding populationsderived from crossing A . hypogaea L. with related species are currentlybeing evaluated for farmer use (Moss, 1985b).Four species of Arachis have been cultivated, including two diploids (2n= 2x = 20: A . villosulicarpa Hoehne and A . repens Handro) and twotetraploids (2n = 4x = 40: A . glabrata Benth. and A . hypogaea). Arachisvillosulicarpa has only been cultivated by Indians in the northwestern partof the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (Gregory et al., 1973). Arachis repensand A . glabrata have been grown in different parts of South America asforages or as ground covers in urban areas. Arachis glabrata has also beenselected for forage qualities in Florida, where recent cultivar releases havebeen made (Prine et al., 1981). However, A . hypogaea is the only specieswhich is cultivated extensively for commercial production of seeds and oil

publication date

  • 1987
  • 1987