Composition of HMW and LMW Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Dough Properties, Pan Bread, and Noodle Quality of Chinese Bread Wheats
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Knowledge of composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and their associations with pan bread and noodle quality will contribute to genetically improving processing quality of Chinese bread wheats. Two trials including a total of 158 winter and facultative cultivars and advanced lines were conducted to detect the allelic variation at Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and to understand their effects on dough properties, pan bread, and dry white Chinese noodle (DWCN) quality. Results indicate that subunits/alleles I and null at Glu-A1, 7+8 and 7+9 at Glu-B1, 2+12 and 5+10 at Glu-D1, alleles a and d at Glu-A3, and alleles j and d at Glu-B3 predominate in Chinese germplasm, and that 34.9% of the tested genotypes carry the 1B/1R translocation (allelic variation at Glu-D3 was not determined because no significant effects were reported previously). Both variations at HMW-GS and LMW-GS/alleles and loci interactions contribute to dough properties and processing quality. For dough strength related traits such as farinograph stability and extensigraph maximum resistance and loaf volume, subunits/alleles 1, 7+8, 5+10, and Glu-A3d are significantly better than those of their counterpart allelic variation, however, no significant difference was observed for the effects of d, b, and f at Glu-B3 on these traits. For extensigraph extensibility, only subunits I and 7+8 are significantly better than their counterpart alleles, and alleles d and b at Glu-B3 are slightly better than others. For DWCN quality, no significant difference is observed for HMW-GS at Glu-1, and Glu-AM and Glu-B3d are slightly better than other alleles. Glu-B3j, associated the 1B/1R translocation, has a strong negative effect on all quality traits except protein content. It is recommended that selection for subunits/alleles 1, 7+8, 5+10, and Glu-AM could contribute to improving gluten quality and pan bread quality. Reducing the frequency of the 1B/1R translocation will be crucial to wheat quality improvement in China.
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