Rice Pest Constraints in Tropical Asia: Characterization of Injury Profiles in Relation to Production Situations. uri icon

abstract

  • A protocol for characterizing patterns of rice cropping practices and injuries due to pathogens, insects, and weeds was developed and used in six sites in tropical Asia covering a wide range of environments where lowland rice is cultivated. The data collected in a total population of 456 individual farmers' fields were combined to site-specific weather data and analyzed using nonparametric multivariate techniques: cluster analyses with chi-square distance and correspondence analyses. The main results are: (i) patterns of cropping practices that are common across sites can be identified; (ii) conversely, injury profiles that are common across sites can be determined; (iii) patterns of cropping practices and injury profiles are strongly associated at the regional scale; (iv) weather patterns are strongly associated with patterns of cropping practices and injury profiles; (v) patterns of cropping practices and injury profiles allow for a good description of the variation in actual yield; and (vi) patterns of cropping practices and injury profiles provide a framework that accurately reflects weather variation and site diversity, and reliably accounts for variation in yield. The mean estimated yield across sites (4.12 t ha(-1)) corresponds to commonly cited averages in the region and indicates the potential for increased productivity with better management practices, especially an improved water supply. Injuries due to pests are secondary compared with other yield-limiting factors. Injury profiles were dominated by stem rot and sheath blight (IN1); bacterial leaf blight, plant hoppers, and leaf folder (IN2); and sheath rot, brown spot, leaf blast, and neck blast (IN3). IN1 was associated with high (mineral) fertilizer inputs, long fallow periods, low pesticide use, and good water management in (mostly) transplanted rice crops of a rice-rice rotation. IN2 was associated with direct-seeded rice crops in an intensive rice-rice rotation, where fertilizer and pesticide inputs are low and water management is poor, or where fertilizer and pesticide inputs are high and water management is adequate. IN3 corresponds to low input, labor intensive Gland weeding and transplanting) rice crops in a diverse rotation system with uncertain water supply. Weed infestation was an omnipresent constraint. This study shows the potential for developing pest management strategies that can be adapted throughout the region, rather than being site-specific.

publication date

  • 2000
  • 2000
  • 2000