Seedling and Adult Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Chinese Bread Wheat Cultivars and Lines
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Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a widespread wheat disease in China. Identification of race-specific genes and adult plant resistance (APR) is of major importance in breeding for an efficient genetic control strategy. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify genes that confer seedling resistance to powdery mildew in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and introductions used by breeding programs in China and (ii) evaluate their APR in the field. The results showed that (i) 98 of 192 tested wheat cultivars and lines appear to have one or more resistance genes to powdery mildew; (ii) Pm8 and Pm4b are the most common resistance genes in Chinese wheat cultivars, whereas Pm8 and Pm3d are present most frequently in wheat cultivars introduced from CIMMYT, the United States, and European countries; (iii) genotypes carrying Pm1, Pm3e, Pm5, and Pm7 were susceptible, whereas those carrying Pm12, Pm16, and Pm20 were highly resistant to almost all isolates of B. graminis f. sp. tritici tested; and (iv) 22 genotypes expressed APR. Our data showed that the area under the disease progress curve, maximum disease severity on the penultimate leaf, and the disease index are good indicators of the degree of APR in the field. It may be a good choice to combine major resistance genes and APR genes in wheat breeding to obtain effective resistance to powdery mildew.
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