Nitrogen Dynamics of Grain Legume–Weedy Fallow–Flooded Rice Sequences in the Tropics uri icon

abstract

  • Dry-season (DS) grain legume-weedy fallow-wet-season (WS) flooded rice is a common cropping sequence in the rainfed lowlands of tropical Asia. To better manage N in this cropping system, we need to understand N dynamics and balances as influenced by the aerobic-anaerobic soil aeration sequence, legume cropping, biological N-2 fixation (BNF), and recycling of legume residues. To understand N dynamics under a range of N derived from BNF (N-15-estimated), harvested in pods and left in residues, we conducted a 2-yr experiment on a Philippine Alfisol using cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], mungbean [V. radiata (L.) Wilcz.], nodulating and nonnodulating soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.], and weeds. The main portion of soil mineral N (0 to 60 cm) was NO3 in the dry season and NH4 in the wet season. The sum of soil NO3 and soil N uptake at legume harvest exceeded the decrease in soil NO3 from legume seeding to harvest by 81 kg ha(-1), indicating the continued production and legume uptake of soil NO3. The large differences in total N of Legumes (46 to 238 kg N ha(-1)), however, were associated with differences in N derived from BNF (0 to 176 kg N ha(-1)). When pod N was excluded, legume N balance was, in most cases, negative. The average soil N depletion was 40 kg ha(-1) from nonnodulating soybean, compared with 8 kg ha(-1) from N-2-fixing legumes. In terms of WS rice grain and N yields, legume cropping did not differ from weedy fallowing, despite greater (by up to 46 kg N ha(-1)) quantities of legume residue N in some instances. Large amounts of legume residues, however, were associated with reduced legume grain yields, thus decreasing the harvestable grain N output. Fertilizer N, compared with residue N, had a greater effect on WS rice grain and N yields. The use of legumes in lowland rice-based cropping systems must maximize harvestable N while effectively using soil, BNF, and applied N sources.
  • Dry-season (DS) grain legume-weedy fallow-wet-season (WS) flooded rice is a common cropping sequence in the rainfed lowlands of tropical Asia. To better manage N in this cropping system, we need to understand N dynamics and balances as influenced by the aerobic-anaerobic soil aeration sequence, legume cropping, biological N2 fixation (BNF), and recycling of legume residues. To understand N dynamics under a range of N derived from BNF (15N-estimated), harvested in pods and left in residues, we conducted a 2-yr experiment on a Philippine Alfisol using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), mungbean (V. radiata (L.) Wilcz.), nodulating and nonnodulating soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and weeds. The main portion of soil mineral N (0 to 60 cm) was NO3 in the dry season and NH4 in the wet season. The sum of soil NO3 and soil N uptake at legume harvest exceeded the decrease in soil NO3 from legume seeding to harvest by 81 kg ha -1, indicating the continued production and legume uptake of soil NO3. The large differences in total N of legumes (46 to 238 kg N ha-1), however, were associated with differences in N derived from BNF (0 to 176 kg N ha-1). When pod N was excluded, legume N balance was, in most cases, negative. The average soil N depletion was 40 kg ha-1 from nonnodulating soybean, compared with 8 kg ha-1 from N2-fixing legumes. In terms of WS rice grain and N yields, legume cropping did not differ from weedy fallowing, despite greater (by up to 46 kg N

publication date

  • 1995
  • 1995
  • 1995
  • 1995