Genetic differentiation analysis of African cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces and elite germplasm using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers uri icon

abstract

  • Molecular-marker-aided evaluation of germplasm plays an important role in defining the genetic diversity of plant genotypes for genetic and population improvement studies. A collection of African cassava landraces and elite cultivars was analysed for genetic diversity using 20 amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) DNA primer combinations and 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Within-population diversity estimates obtained with both markers were correlated, showing little variation in their fixation index. The amount of within-population variation was higher for landraces as illustrated by both markers, allowing discrimination among accessions along their geographical origins, with some overlap indicating the pattern of germplasm movement between countries. Elite cultivars were grouped in most cases in agreement with their pedigree and showed a narrow genetic variation. Both SSR and AFLP markers showed some similarity in results for the landraces, although SSR provided better genetic differentiation estimates. Genetic differentiation (Fst) in the landrace population was 0.746 for SSR and 0.656 for AFLP. The molecular variance among cultivars in both populations accounted for up to 83% of the overall variation, while 17% was found within populations. Gene diversity (H-e) estimated within each population varied with an average value of 0.607 for the landraces and 0.594 for the elite lines. Analyses of SSR data using ordination techniques identified additional cluster groups not detected by AFLP and also captured maximum variation within and between both populations. Our results indicate the importance of SSR and AFLP as efficient markers for the analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in cassava. Genetic differentiation analysis of the evaluated populations provides high prospects for identifying diverse parental combinations for the development of segregating populations for genetic studies and the introgression of desirable genes from diverse sources into the existing genetic base.

publication date

  • 2009
  • 2009
  • 2009