Developing rice cultivars for high-fertility upland systems in the Asian tropics uri icon

abstract

  • Traditionally, upland rice is grown in Asia in low-input, subsistence systems. More productive upland systems, using more fertilizer and improved varieties, are emerging in China and Philippines, and could contribute to productivity increases in rainfed environments in other Countries. Here, we evaluate, on-station and on-farm, the yield under upland management of improved indica upland cultivars selected for yield under high-fertility conditions. These cultivars; are compared with traditional and improved tropical japonica upland varieties, and with elite indica high-yielding varieties (HYV) developed for irrigated lowland production, to characterize the features of varieties that produce high yields in favorable upland environments. Forty-four improved and traditional varieties and experimental lines were evaluated in irrigated lowland, non-stressed upland, moderately stressed upland, severely water-stressed upland, and low-fertility upland environments in southern Luzon, Philippines. Correlations between yields in non-stress and mild-stress environments were low but positive. Some cultivars, like IR55423-01, were among the highest yielding under both conditions. indicating that high yield and moderate water-stress tolerance can be combined. Upland-selected indica varieties yielded 3.56 t ha(-1) in favorable upland environments on-station in southern Luzon, out performing improved tropical japonica and irrigated varieties by 23 and 69%, respectively. They were also the highest-yielding class in infertile, acid soils. The improved upland indica cultivars are about 110 cm tall under favorable upland conditions and maintain a harvest index of nearly 0.4, or about one-third higher than other cultivar types. The best upland-adapted rice varieties produced average yields on-farm of 3.3 and 4.1 t ha(-1) in southern Luzon and Yunnan, respectively, outyielding traditional checks by 30-50% with moderate N application. Screening under both high-fertility, non-stress conditions and moderate reproductive-stage stress appears to be needed to develop cultivars combining high-yield potential with drought tolerance. Upland-adapted indica cultivars offer a new approach to increasing productivity and reducing risk in Asian rainfed rice systems. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • 2006
  • 2006
  • 2006