Integrated Pest Management in Rice
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Integrated pest management (IPM) in rice has been mainly applied to irrigated, lowland paddy rice ecosystems which generally use more inputs and have higher yields ha-1 than rainfed ecosystems. Large scale implementation of IPM was stimulated in the 1970s in several Asian countries by pest resurgences resulting from indiscriminate insecticide use. Legislation has been enacted in at least five countries to support IPM and by 1992, approximately 0.05% of Asian farmers had received training in IPM. In at least two countries, adoption of IPM as national policy has resulted in large savings from reduced importation of pesticides with no reduction in total rice output or productivity. The inter-country programme on rice IPM of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations, the International Rice Research Institute and national programmes have all contributed to promoting rice IPM. Host plant resistance, deployed with location-specific cultural practices that conserve natural enemies, remains the basis for sustainable, low-cost rice IPM. Thresholds, monitoring and forecasting systems have little or no impact on farmer practice in the tropics; farmer group learning appears to be the most effective way towards IPM adoption.
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