Planting Systems on Lodging Behavior, Yield Components, and Yield of Irrigated Spring Bread Wheat
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Lodging control of irrigated spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through both crop management practices and cultivar improvement is needed to increase yield and grain quality in farmer fields, especially in developing countries where wheat production under irrigation predominates. The objectives of this research were to: (i) determine how different planting systems combined with cultivar choice can alter lodging incidence; (ii) provide a better understanding of planting system X genotype interactions to identify improved management alternatives for farmers facing chronic wheat crop lodging; and (iii) assess potential lodging consequences that may be associated with the translocation containing the Lr19 gene which has been shown to contribute to increased grain yield potential. Lodging behavior and yield potential were studied for 16 spring wheat genotypes under disease free, irrigated conditions at the CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo) experiment station near Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico, during the 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 crop cycles. Among the genotypes tested were SUPER SERI, which carries the Lr19 gene, and Seri 82, which is a near isogenic cultivar lacking the gene. Comparisons were made between the widely used, flat planting system with flood irrigation versus an innovative bed planting system with furrow irrigation that has been widely adopted by many farmers in northwest Mexico. An additional treatment using support nets to eliminate lodging for the flat planting system was included to estimate yield losses attributable to lodging. There were yield differences among planting systems and genotypes and their interactions were significant for yield and most other traits. Bed planted genotypes demonstrated over 50% less lodging compared with flat planting providing evidence that bed planting irrigated spring wheat may be beneficial where chronic lodging occurs. Although SUPER SERI significantly out-yielded Seri 82, it also exhibited significantly more lodging.
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