Synchrony of planting and proportions of susceptible varieties affect rice tungro disease epidemics in the Philippines uri icon

abstract

  • Surveys were conducted in the Philippines from 1995 to 1997 to examine relationships between production environment variables (agroecosystem, synchrony of planting, and varieties planted) and the occurrence of rice tungro disease epidemics using correspondence analyses. The sites covered were Isabela, Nueva Ecija, North Cotabato, and Bohol provinces as well as Bicol region. Tungro disease incidence in farmers' fields was assessed visually based on typical symptoms. In addition, leaf samples were collected from each field and indexed serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of Rice tungro bacilliform (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical (RTSV) viruses. Thus, relationships between the production environment variables and four disease variables - visual incidence and double RTBV and RTSV, single RTSV, and single RTBV infections - were examined. A higher association was observed between site and varieties planted as well as site and synchrony of planting than between site and agroecosystem or site and disease variables (visual incidence, double RTBV and RTSV and single RTSV infections). Disease variables depended on both varieties planted and synchrony of planting and correspondence analysis revealed that the low disease incidence in Nueva Ecija was associated with synchronous planting while the high disease incidence in Isabela was associated with the planting of susceptible varieties and asynchronous planting. Such findings suggest that the relationship between the last two factors at a given site is critical to predicting tungro occurrence. Moreover, correspondence analysis of the relationship among disease variables revealed that tungro incidence is associated with not only double RTBV and RTSV infections but also single RTSV infections. Implications of these results on tungro epidemiology and management are discussed. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • 2001
  • 2001
  • 2001