Genetic diversity of rice tungro spherical virus in tungro-endemic provinces of the Philippines and Indonesia.
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The two adjacent genes of coat protein 1 and 2 of rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) were amplified from total RNA extracts of serologically indistinguishable field isolates from the Philippines and Indonesia, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Digestion with HindIII and BstYI restriction endonucleases differentiated the amplified DNA products into eight distinct coat protein genotypes. These genotypes were then used as indicators of virus diversity in the field. Inter- and intra-site diversities were determined over three cropping seasons. At each of the sites surveyed, one or two main genotypes prevailed together with other related minor or mixed genotypes that did not replace the main genotype over the sampling time. The cluster of genotypes found at the Philippines sites was significantly different from the one at the Indonesia sites, suggesting geographic isolation for virus populations. Phylogenetic studies based on the nucleotide sequences of 38 selected isolates confirm the spatial distribution of RTSV virus populations but show that gene flow may occur between populations. Under the present conditions, rice varieties do not seem to exert selective pressure on the virus populations. Based on the selective constraints in the coat protein amino acid sequences and the virus genetic composition per site, a negative selection model followed by random-sampling events due to vector transmissions is proposed to explain the inter-site diversity observed.
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