Novel Methods to Optimize Genotypic Imputation for Low-Coverage, Next-Generation Sequence Data in Crop Plants
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Next-generation sequencing technology such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) made low-cost, but often low-coverage, whole-genome sequencing widely available. Extensive inbreeding in crop plants provides an untapped, high quality source of phased haplotypes for imputing missing genotypes. We introduce Full-Sib Family Haplotype Imputation (FSFHap), optimized for full-sib populations, and a generalized method, Fast Inbred Line Library ImputatioN (FILLIN), to rapidly and accurately impute missing genotypes in GBS-type data with ordered markers. FSFHap and FILLIN impute missing genotypes with high accuracy in GBS-genotyped maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and breeding populations, while Beagle v. 4 is still preferable for diverse heterozygous populations. FILLIN and FSFHap are implemented in TASSEL 5.0.
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