Management of phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in intensive, irrigated lowland rice uri icon

abstract

  • Management of soil phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) resources in intensive, irrigated rice systems has received less attention than increasing cropping intensity and yields with new cultivars, irrigation, and fertilizer N. Crop requirements, input-output balance, and soil supplying capacity of P, K and S in irrigated lowland rice are reviewed. Based on projected rice production requirements, we estimate that the total annual nutrient demand for irrigated rice will be about 9 to 13 X 10(6) t N, 9 to 15 X 10(6) t K, 1.2 to 2.4 X 10(6) t P and 0.9 to 1.5 X 10(6) t S in 2025, amounts that represent an increase of 65 to 70% above 1990 requirements. At present, negative K balances are widespread and K deficiency has become a constraint to increasing yields, even on heavy-textured lowland soils with high inherent fertility. Because opportunities are limited for breeding cultivars that acquire more P, K or S from soil or have higher internal nutrient-use efficiencies, long-term management strategies must focus on maintaining adequate nutrient balances in the topsoil layer. Interactions among nutrients have a large influence on physiological and agronomic efficiency that result from nutrient applications. Strategies that only aim at increasing P or K application rates without considering the indigenous supply from soil reserves are inefficient; they may not sustain yield increases to meet rice demand. Little improvement in fertilizer use efficiency can be expected from the present system of providing blanket recommendations for a given production domain. Instead, site-specific nutrient-management approaches will be needed to accommodate the tremendous variability in indigenous nutrient supply found in the irrigated lowlands of Asia. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

publication date

  • 1998
  • 1998
  • 1998