Cone and seed production from stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) stands in Central Range (Spain) uri icon


  • Natural regeneration of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) stands in the Central Range of Spain can be difficult to attain. The success of this regeneration is affected by factors such as the total amount of seed available, the short dispersal ability of the pinyon, the conditions required for germination, specific problems associated with the establishment, early survival of the seedlings due to severe summer heat and drought, competition for water and mineral resources and grazing damage. This study focuses on seed availability. The amount of available seeds depends on the number and size of the cones and the number of viable pinyons within the cones. In stone pine stands, both variables show great year to year variability. Both cone and seed production, for a given year, are also conditioned by the vigour and health of the tree, its size, the condition and attributes of the stand and the loss of seed through pests or predation. In this study, the main factors which influence cone and pinyon production are identified and a multivariate model to predict annual cone and viable seed production is developed. To consider the correlation among observations coming from the same tree, stand or year, random components are included in the model. The multivariate random structure allows for future calibration of the model for a given year from a small additional sample of observations. It is important to know the total amount of viable seed produced in a stand for a given year since regeneration cuttings for Stone pine should be concentrated in high crop years.

publication date

  • 2007
  • 2006