Analysis of genetic diversity at the DQA loci in African cattle: evidence for a BoLA-DQA3 locus
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We describe the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach for analysis of genetic diversity at the DQA loci in African Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. This approach, equally effective in European and Asian cattle breeds, detects the presence or absence of DQA1 and most duplicated DQA2 genes. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence analysis of the highly polymorphic second exons, in addition to analysis of the locus-specific and relatively non-polymorphic transmembrane, cytoplasmic, and 3-prime untranslated regions, has provided evidence for considerable diversity between each of the duplicated DQA2 genes. Therefore, we propose the designation BoLA-DQA3 for the previously unpublished alleles at the second DQA2 locus. Fourteen distinct PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, each identifying families of alleles at three DQA loci, can be distinguished. Nucleotide sequence analysis of new PCR-RFLP patterns from 193 Kenyan Boran, Ethiopian Arsi (B. indicus), and Guinean N'Dama (B. taurus) cattle identified 13 DQA1 alleles within eight major allelic families, five DQA2 alleles within a single allelic family, and seven DQA3 alleles within three major allelic families.
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