Effects of Wheat Starch Granule Size Distribution on Qualities of Chinese Steamed Bread and Raw White Noodles
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Starch is a crucial component determining the processing quality of wheat-based products such as Chinese steamed bread (CSB) and raw white noodles (RWN). Flour from wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was used for fractionation into starch, gluten, and water solubles by hand washing. The starch fraction was successfully separated into large (>10 mu m diameter) and small starch granules (<10 mu m diameter) by repeated sedimentation. Flour fractions were reconstituted to original levels in the flour by using constant gluten and water solubles and varying the weight ratio of large and small starch granules. As the proportion of small granules increased in the reconstituted flours, farinograph water absorption in-creased, and amylose content, pasting peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased. Starch granule size distribution significantly affected processing quality of CSB and RWN. Superior crumb structure score (12.0) was observed in CSB made from reconstituted flour with 35% small starch granules. CSB made from reconstituted flours with 30 and 35% small starch granules exhibited the highest total scores, with values of 85.4 and 83.3, respectively. Significant improvements in color, viscoelasticity, and smoothness of RWN were obtained with an increase in small starch granule content, and reconstituted flours with 30-40% small starch granules produced RWN with moderate firmness.
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