Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of banana and plantain and the growth of tissue culture cultivars
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The status of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in banana and plantain (Musa spp.) farming systems was studied in central Kenya. Soils and roots were sampled from 50 farms. Mean colonization frequency and intensity of 56.9% and 36.8% signified presence of viable infective propagules. Total of 22 morphotypes were recovered and six identified to known species. Fungal communities comprised of Acaulosporaceae, Glomaceae, Archaeosporaceae and Gigasporaceae dominated by species in Glomus. Acaulospora produced 52.2% of the spores with Acaulospora scrobiculata the most abundant and dominant at the rhizosphere of 60% of the cultivars. Mean colonization, spore abundance, species richness and diversity at rhizosphere of cultivars were not significant (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, Monte Carlo significant test revealed significant (p = 0.04) interaction between cultivars and AMF variables. Principal component analysis indicated high correspondence of cultivars in similar ploidy and AMF variables and Co-inertia analysis indicating AAA-Cavendish cultivars to relate strongly to spore variables and AAA-Gros Michel with colonization. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated soil phosphorus and carbon to negatively affect colonization and carbon to positively affect spore abundance and species richness. Musa systems maintained high species richness and low spore abundance. Trap plants of unrelated species did not differ in their effects on AMF variables. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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