Possible causes of yield failure in tropical aerobic rice uri icon

abstract

  • Aerobic rice is a water-saving rice production system for water-short environments with favorable soils and adapted, potentially high-yielding varieties that are direct dry seeded. Soils remain aerobic but supplementary irrigation is applied as necessary. In the dry season of 2004 and 2005, a water by N experiment was set up at the location "Dapdap" in central Central Luzon, Philippines, to explore water and N management strategies in aerobic rice. The experiment was laid out as a split plot design on a loamy sand soil with three water treatments (irrigation twice per week, once per week, and once in two weeks with modifications) and 5 N levels (0-200 kg ha (1)). Average seasonal soil moisture tension ranged from 9.2 to 20 kPa but yield hardly responded to the treatment combinations and ranged from 0 to 2 t ha (1). In addition to trial-specific parameters, root knot nematodes and micronutrients (2005) were monitored. Calling of toots due to nematodes was assessed through a rating scale of 0-5, with O = no galling and 5 = > 75% of the root system galled. The degree of galling reached a level of 5 at flowering and harvest in 2004, and 3 at tillering and 4 at harvest in 2005. Results of a plant tissue analysis at mid-tillering for Fe, Mn, and Zn showed on average values above critical levels; individual replicates, however, indicated deficiencies for Mn. In addition to actual field observations, we used simulation modeling (ORYZA2000) as a toot to estimate attainable yield under actual water conditions and N inputs to explore how yield failure set in. Simulation results matched observed Values for total above-ground biomass and leaf area index quite well when no N was applied. When high rates of N (200 and 165 kg ha (1)) were applied, Simulated values matched actual field data only until about the panicle initiation stage; afterward, observed Values remained below the simulation. We interpreted this as evidence that growth limiting factors other than water or N affected the crop from this growth stage oil. Observations made in the field on root knot nematodes and micronutrients suggested that these two factors, especially root knot nematodes, may have been major constraints to crop development in this experiment. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • 2009
  • 2009
  • 2009