Efficient use of crop germplasm resources: identifying useful germplasm for crop improvement through core and mini-core collections and molecular marker approaches uri icon

abstract

  • Conservation of crop germplasm diversity involves the establishment of in situ and ex situgenebanks. The major activities for ex situ genebanks include assembling, conserving, characterizingand providing easy access to germplasm for scientists. More than six million accessionsare currently assembled in over 1300 genebanks worldwide. ICRISAT is one of the 15 CGIARcentres, with headquarters at Patancheru, India, and conserves genetic resources of sorghum,pearl millet, chickpea, pigeonpea, groundnut, and six small millets. The ICRISAT genebankholds 114,870 accessions from 130 countries, including both archival materials from variousorganizations throughout the world, and from fresh collections resulting from 213 missionsin 62 countries. The ICRISAT genebank supplies annually over 40,000 germplasm samplesto scientists worldwide. Sixty-six varieties selected from the basic germplasm have beenreleased for cultivation in 44 countries, and ICRISAT has restored/repatriated crop germplasmto eight countries. The research focus is on germplasm diversity assessment, developing coreand mini-core collections, and using a molecular characterization approach to both enhancethe utilization of germplasm in research and improve the efficiency of germplasm management.Following these approaches, we have been able to identify a significant number ofaccessions with traits potentially relevant for crop improvement

publication date

  • 2006
  • 2006