Diversity and Origin of Andean Landraces of Common Bean
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Landraces of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pertaining to the Andean gene pool are remarkably diverse in plant and grain morphology and agroecological adaptation. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic structure of a large sample of Andean landraces, and to establish a correspondence between Andean landraces and wild bean populations that might have served as the source of domesticated bean. A total of 182 landraces representing the three recognized races of Andean bean and including many popping bean types were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology with multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Twenty-nine wild bean accessions representing the diversity of wild bean in South America and Middle America were also included. Two sets of primers were used to generate 189 polymorphic AFLP. The graph of the results of MCA indicated that most landrace accessions formed a single undifferentiated group, and analysis by UPGMA combined with bootstrapping confirmed this. A small number of outliers presented bands that suggested introgression from Mesoamerican beans. Among wild bean populations from South America, those from Bolivia graphed in closest proximity to the cultivated bean, suggesting that Bolivia might have been an important primary domestication site. The narrow genetic base of Andean beans emphasizes the need to broaden the genetic base of the Andean gene pool.
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