Grain Quality of Emmer Wheat Derived Synthetic Hexaploid Wheats uri icon

abstract

  • The wild diploid goat grass (Aegilops tauschii Cosson), and the cultivated tetraploid emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.) may be important sources of genetic diversity for improving hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Through interspecific hybridization of emmer wheat and Ae. tauschii, followed by chromosome doubling, it is possible to produce homozygous synthetic hexaploid wheat. Fifty-eight such synthetic hexaploids were evaluated for grain quality parameters: grain weight, length, and plumpness, grain hardness, total protein content, and protein quality (SDS-Sedimentation volume, SDS-S). Most synthetics showed semi-hard to hard grain texture. Results showed significant genetic variation among the synthetic hexaploids for protein content, SDS-S values, and grain weight and plumpness. Quality measurement values of synthetic hexaploids were regressed on corresponding values of the emmer wheat parents. With this offspring-parent regression, protein content and SDS-S values explained 8.7 and 28.8%, respectively, of the variation among synthetics, indicating a significant contribution from the emmer wheat parents for these traits. The synthetic hexaploids, in general, had significantly higher protein content (15.5%, on average) and longer grains than 'Seri M82', the bread wheat control (13.1% protein content). Synthetics with SDS-S values and grain weights higher than those of 'Seri M82' were also identified. Protein content among synthetics showed significantly negative correlations with grain weight and plumpness, but no correlation with SDS-S values. Despite these negative correlations, 10 superior synthetic hexaploid wheats, derived from nine different emmer wheat parents and with above average levels of protein content, SDS-S values, and either grain weight or plumpness, were identified. This study shows that genetic variation for quality in tetraploid emmer wheat can be transferred to synthetic hexaploid wheats and combined with plump grains and high grain weight, to be used for bread wheat breeding.

publication date

  • 2006
  • 2006