Phylogeography and population genetics of the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in sub-Saharan Africa. uri icon

abstract

  • The population genetics and phylogeography of African phytophagous insects have received little attention. Some, such as the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca, display significant geographic differences in ecological preferences that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. To test this, we collected 307 individuals of this species from maize and cultivated sorghum at 52 localities in West, Central and East Africa during the growing season. For all collected individuals, we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b. We tested hypotheses concerning the history and demographic structure of this species. Phylogenetic analyses and nested clade phylogeographic analyses (NCPA) separated the populations into three mitochondrial clades, one from West Africa, and two - Kenya I and Kenya II - from East and Central Africa. The similar nucleotide divergence between clades and nucleotide diversity within clades suggest that they became isolated at about the same time in three different refuges in sub-Saharan Africa and have similar demographic histories. The results of mismatch distribution analyses were consistent with the demographic expansion of these clades. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated a high level of geographic differentiation at different hierarchical levels. NCPA suggested that the observed distribution of haplotypes at several hierarchical levels within the three major clades is best accounted for by restricted gene flow with isolation by distance. The domestication of sorghum and the introduction of maize in Africa had no visible effect on the geographic patterns observed in the B. fusca mitochondrial genome.

publication date

  • 2006
  • 2006