Characterization of methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. III. Mitigation options and future research needs uri icon

abstract

  • Methane (CH4) emissions from rice fields were determined using automated measurement systems in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Mitigation options were assessed separately for different baseline practices of irrigated rice, rainfed, and deepwater rice. Irrigated rice is the largest source of CH4 and also offers the most options to modify crop management for reducing these emissions. Optimizing irrigation patterns by additional drainage periods in the field or an early timing of midseason drainage accounted for 7-80% of CH4 emissions of the respective baseline practice. In baseline practices with high organic amendments, use of compost (58-63%), biogas residues (10-16%), and direct wet seeding (16-22%) should be considered mitigation options. In baseline practices using prilled urea as sole N source, use of ammonium sulfate could reduce CH4 emission by 10-67%. In all rice ecosystems, CH4 emissions can be reduced by fallow incorporation (11%) and mulching (11%) of rice straw as well as addition of phosphogypsum (9-73%). However, in rainfed and deepwater rice, mitigation options are very limited in both number and potential gains. The assessment of these crop management options includes their total factor productivity and possible adverse effects. Due to higher nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, changes in water regime are only recommended for rice systems with high baseline emissions of CH4. Key objectives of future research are identifying and characterizing high-emitting rice systems, developing site-specific technology packages, ascertaining synergies with productivity, and accounting for N2O emissions.

publication date

  • 2000
  • 2000