Origins of resistances to rust and late leaf spot in peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Fabaceae) uri icon

abstract

  • The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Fabaceae) is believed to have originated along the eastern slopes of the Andes in Bolivia and northern Argentina. The crop is now grown throughout tropical and warm temperate regions. Among diseases attacking peanuts, rust caused byPuccinia arachidis and late leaf spot caused byPhaeoisariopsis personata are the most important and destructive on a worldwide scale. Both pathogens, restricted in host range to Arachis, probably originated and coevolved in South America along with their hosts. In recent years there has been much emphasis on screening of peanut germplasm for resistance to these diseases. At the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISA T), India, some 10,000 peanut germplasm accessions were screened for resistance to rust and late leaf spot during 1977?1985 and sources of resistance indentified for either or both pathogens. Of the resistant genotypes, about 87% belonged to A. hypogaea var.fastigiata and 13% to var.hypogaea; 84% originated in South America or had South American connections. A high percentage (75%) had their origin in Peru (believed to be a secondary gene center for var.hirsuta and var.fastigiata,), suggesting that resistance to rust and late leaf spot diseases might have evolved in that country

publication date

  • 1989
  • 1989